In today’s time of digitalization, we all know about computers very well. Today in this blog we will discuss computer networking.
Let’s start with the basic definition of computer network,
The interconnection of two computers or more than two computers for data communication is called a Computer Network. or we can say A Computer Network is a group of interconnected computers for the purpose of sharing resources or data like computer hardware or software.
We know very considerably that without the internet computer is a scrap box as the Internet is the world’s largest computer network. The Internet is a wide area network.
With the internet, millions of computers are connected across the world transmitting for resources sharing. They use it for data sharing like computer hardware or software.
There were some reasons behind the creation of computer networks are following:
- For sharing data across computer network.
- For sharing computer hardwares and softwares.
- For communicating among them.
Advantages of Computer Networks
- Fast and cheap commmunication across network
- hardware and software sharing makes easier
- Sharing files or data is very easy now from one computer to another
- sharing of tasks is easier
- creates social networks
- It is more convenient to sharing resources
- These are an inexpensve systems
- They increases cost efficiency
- Higher & Cheap storage capacity
Disadvantages of Cmputer Networks
- If the security system is not applied to the network, then the data and information may be on risk of stolen
- Lack of security leads to virus infection and destruction of computer hardware and software
- The privacy of a user may not be secure
- It increases cybercrimes
Now, move to the types of computer networking we have seen till.
Types of Computer Networks
- LAN – Local Area Network
- MAN – Metropolitan Area Network
- WAN – Wide Ares Network
Some more additional types are also there like PAN, HAN, EPN, BBN, GAN, etc.
Local Area Network (LAN)
A computer network is called local area network when it is spread in a small range area. such as a room or a building’s network is local area network’s example.
It is a small range spread network where computers are usually connected with cables. If the LAN is created with wireless transmission media then it is said to be WLAN wireless LAN.
Features of LAN
- It covers a small geographical area
- Cables are used for connecting computers
- It offers higher bandwidth for transmitting data
- It is normally owned by a single organization
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
MAN is bigger than LAN but smaller than WAN. It covers a city or between cities, the network is called MAN. It helps to create a network between branches of organization sources, bank offices, schools, etc.
Features of MAN
- It covers a larger area than LAN
- It uses wireless media to create networks
- It can be owned by single or multiple oragnizations
Wide Area Network (WAN)
A computer network that covers the whole world is WAN. It is the network between countries.
It uses for telephone lines, microwaves, radio waves, or satellite links to form such a big network. In WAN many LAN and MAN networks are connected. So, we call it a Network Of Networks.
The internet is a Wide Area Network.
Features of WAN
- It spreads in the whole world
- It uses wired and wireless both media to connect computers
- It is owned by multiple organizations
Nodes in Computer Network
The nodes of a computer network may contain personal computers, servers, networking hardware, or other technical or general-purpose hosts. They are determined by network addresses and may have hostnames. Hostnames serve as unique labels for the nodes, rarely modified after the initial grant. Network addresses serve for encountering and identifying the nodes by transmission protocols such as the Internet Protocol.
Terms For Networking
- Open system: This is connected to the network and prepared for communication.
- Closed system: This is not connected to the network and so can’t be communicated with.
- IP (Internet Protocol) address: the network address of the system across the network, which is also known as the Logical Address).
- MAC address: the MAC address or physical address uniquely identifies each host. It is associated with the Network Interface Card (NIC).
- Port: a port is a channel through which data is sent and received.
- Nodes: nodes is a term used to refer to any computing devices such as computers that send and receive network packets across the network.
- Network packets: the data that is sent to and from the nodes in a network.
- Routers: routers are pieces of hardware that manage router packets. They determine which node the information came from and where to send it to. A router has a routing protocol which defines how it communicates with other routers.
- Network address translation (NAT): a technique that routers use to provide internet service to more devices using fewer public IPs. A router has a public IP address but devices connected to it are assigned private IPs that others outside of the network can’t see.
- Dynamic host configuration protocol (DHCP): assigns dynamic IP addresses to hosts and is maintained by the internet service provider.
- Internet service providers (ISP): companies that provide everyone with their internet connection, both to individuals and to businesses and other organizations.
As today in this article, we learned about computer networks (computer networking ), their types & Features, some useful terms of it.
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